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MET Mutation and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

MET Mutation and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

In a number of cancers, the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET) is a promising therapeutic target. The MET pathway is thought to be activated in NSCLC through a variety of mechanisms that regulate characteristics that affect cancer cell survival, growth, and severity. 

Because MET is a growth receptor, having extra copies of the MET gene suggests that the cancer is receiving more growth signals. Although MET amplification is a rare occurrence in lung cancer, it is a predictive biomarker for some individuals with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). 

What Is a MET Mutation? 

The MET protein is produced by the MET gene. It contributes to cell development and signaling. (Cell signaling is the process through which cells communicate with one another to ensure that the body functions properly.) The MET gene in cancer cells can change and produce more MET protein. (A mutation is a change in the genome of a cell that might cause cancer to grow.) Cancer can grow and spread if this happens. The cause of this mutation is unknown to doctors. It can be found in cancers of the lungs, liver, kidneys, and head and neck. Doctors have discovered that blocking the MET protein can slow the progression of cancer. 

What Is MET Amplification? 

There are two MET biomarkers that are currently relevant to cancer. Amplification of the MET gene means that there are more copies of the gene MET in the body. Because MET is a growth receptor, having extra copies of the MET gene suggests that the cancer is receiving more growth signals. Although extra copies of the MET gene are uncommon in lung cancer, MET amplification can be used as a predictive biomarker in some cases. That indicates that if you have many copies of the MET gene, MET targeted therapy may work better for you. 

How Do You Know if You Have Met Positive NSCLC? 

In non-small cell lung cancer, doctors seek extra copies of the MET gene as well as faults in the MET protein. If you have non-small cell lung cancer, you should discuss thorough biomarker testing with your doctor to discover if you have a biomarker for which a targeted treatment is approved. 

What Are the Treatment Options for Met Positive NSCLC? 

A targeted therapy MET inhibitor drug called capmatinib or tepotinib is the standard of care for first-line treatment of MET in NSCLC cancer that has spread. Clinical trials of other MET inhibitors, immunotherapy with or without chemotherapy, or off-label usage of a targeted drug called crizotinib are some of the other treatment options. 

Immunotherapy with or without chemotherapy may be used if you have MET gene amplification. Clinical trials of MET inhibitors could be one of the other therapy options. 

What Is MET Exon 14 Skipping in NSCLC? 

Exon 14 skipping, a particular MET defect, has the most impact on lung cancer treatment. Simply said, proteins in the cell must be broken down and eliminated if the cell is to function properly. When the MET protein is no longer needed, it is broken down by a protein called CBL. Exon 14 of the MET gene codes for the intersection between CBL and MET. CBL is prevented from binding by mutations in the MET gene that cause exon 14 to be deleted (or skipped). This allows the MET protein to linger longer and send cancer-promoting growth signals. 

MET Clinical Trials 

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer MET Clinical Trials help to advance treatments for patients for the future by finding better alternatives to standard therapies, often with less side effects. MET alterations are most common in lung cancer, but they also occur in several other cancer types.  

The MET gene amplification can enable cancerous cells to replicate and spread more aggressively than lung cancer cases without known biomarkers in some cases of lung cancer, particularly non-small cell lung cancer. Patients with a MET amplification may respond better to MET-focused therapy than to normal therapies. 

Targeted therapy and immunotherapy medications have improved results in non-small cell lung cancer MET alteration clinical trials. For eligible patients, there are around 60 lung cancer MET-amplified clinical trials to choose from. 

Sources: 

https://www.mycancergenome.org

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

https://www.cancersupportcommunity.org

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