In Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) Breast Cancer, and multiple other cancers, the fibroblast growth factor receptor tends to be dysregulated. Various classes of FGFR inhibitors are under clinical development for different tumor types, including breast cancer.
It appears that the irregular signal transmission in FGFR Breast Cancer patients plays an important role in tumor development and progression. According to numerous studies, it has been proven that deregulation of the tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors is a common oncogenic event in breast cancer.
What is a Growth Factor Receptor?
In the most general terms, cells must meet stimuli, such as hormones and growth factors, coming from the external environment on the cell surface, in order to carry out vital functions. The message they receive from these warnings must also be transmitted to the cell. The structures on the cell surface to which molecules coming from the external environment bind to the cells are called receptors. Some receptors are found in the cytoplasm or nucleus inside the cell, not on the cell surface.
The receptors to which growth factors that support cell division bind are called growth factor receptors. Growth factors in the microenvironment outside of the cell binds to the growth factor receptor and enables the receptor to become active.
The receptor has a tyrosine kinase domain inside the cell. These regions enable a number of intracellular proteins to be activated. The signals received from the outer part of the cell, by means of proteins, are then transmitted via internal signaling pathways to affect cell function. Proteins that bind to certain regions of DNA enable genes related to cell proliferation, differentiation, and other vital activities to be activated.
FGFR Breast Cancer Relationship
During normal cell functioning, growth factor receptors become active in certain situations and allow the cell to reproduce. However, with the accumulation of DNA damage or mutation, changes occur in the receptors. As a result of these changes, the receptor becomes constantly active and sends a continuous proliferation signal to the cell. In this case, cancerous cell formation occurs.
The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family includes five transmembrane receptors with tyrosine kinase activity in all receptors except for one. Substantial research on cancer cells confirm the essential role of FGFR signaling in cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and survival. According to the results of these targeted clinical treatment studies, focus on FGFR inhibitors in breast cancer are ongoing.
Breast cancer is a complex disease and some molecular factors regulate its progression. Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling is often erratic in many cancers, including breast cancer. Because FGFR signals are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of tumors, FGFR targeted agents reveal a potential therapeutic option for breast cancer patients.
With the development of genetic testing techniques, mutations in the genes that enable the production of receptors have been identified and drugs are being produced for these mutations. Targeted drugs bind to mutated receptors and growth factors, preventing the cancer cell from growing aggressively