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CD20 Antigen: Things to Know
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CD20 Antigen: Things to Know

CD20 Antigen: Things to Know 

CD20 antigen is a transmembrane protein found in B-cells (also called B lymphocytes), which are a type of white blood cell. As a biomarker, CD20 is expressed in types of cancers associated with B-cell deterioration, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and follicular lymphoma. In this article, we will go over the most prominent questions about CD20 antigen. 

Definition of CD20 Antigen 

The National Cancer Institute defines CD20 antigen as a protein found on B- cells (a type of white blood cell). It may be found in higher-than-normal amounts in patients with certain types of B-cell lymphomas and leukemias. Measuring the amount of CD20 in blood cells may help to diagnose cancer or plan cancer treatment. CD20 is a type of tumor marker. Also called CD20 antigen. 

What Do CD20-positive B-cells Do? 

B-cells are the lead element in immunopathogenesis (the development of disease as affected by the immune system) of autoimmune diseases. The B-cells create autoantibodies, present antigens, regulate other cell types, and secrete cytokines. CD20 expression starts at the pre-B-cell stage of development. It continues to exist until the final differentiation into a plasma cell. Although the function of CD20 is not completely understood, it is thought to act as a modular of cell growth and differentiation, and to start intracellular signals. These features make the CD20-positive B-cells an important potential for targeted therapy. 

What Is CD20-Positive B-cell Lymphoma? 

To diagnose a patient with CD20-positive B-cell lymphoma, this antigen needs to be identified through immunohistochemistry (IHC) and find out if the irregular cancerous white blood cell is a B-cell or a T-cell.  

CD20-positive B-cell lymphoma is associated with challenges in the differential diagnosis of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma and T-cell–rich B-cell lymphoma. Although these two diseases are morphologically close, they are clinically different from each other and require different approaches. Studies show that rituximab presents a positive option for the treatment of relapsed CD20-positive lymphoma patients. The drug also shows promising results for a higher rate of failure-free treatment for CD-positive classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and overall survival rates. 

What Does CD20-Positive Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Mean? 

B-cell lymphoma is one of two types of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). According to the data given by the American Cancer Society, about 85 percent of NHL patients have B-cell lymphoma. The CD20 expression below the cut-off values below is present in about 25 percent of B-cell lymphoma patients.  

What Is an Anti-CD20 ? 

Anti-CD20 is the name given to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that, as part of the targeted therapy, aims B-cell depletion. Originally, the anti-CD20s were developed as drugs to treat B-cell-related autoimmune diseases such as NHL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) as part of the targeted therapy. According to the study results published in the National Library of Medicine, “the second generation of anti-CD20 mAbs has been designed to be more effective, better tolerated, and of lower immunogenicity.” The second generation includes ocrelizumab, obinutuzumab, veltuzumab, and ofatumumab. 

CD20-Positive Clinical Trials 

Targeted therapy is an exciting investigation topic for medical scientists as it proves positive results for patients. And since CD20 antigen’s relationship with common types of cancer and its role in the body is associated with cell growth, differentiation, and signaling between cells, it is considered an important element to study through clinical trials. According to the National Library of Medicine’s portal clinicaltrials.gov, there are about 100 open clinical trials focusing on CD20 antigen.  

Massive Bio dedicates a large group of experts and a state-of-the-art Artificial Intelligence-based program to find the best clinical trial options for cancer patients all over the world. These clinical trials include CD20-positive focused research as well as many other specific types of cancer. If you are looking for treatment options, feel free to get a free consultation from our experts or explore how you can enroll in a clinical trial. 

Sources: 

cancer.gov 

genentechoncology.com 

pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov 

sciencedirect.com 

healthline.com 

nature.com 

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