Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials
Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials can provide more effective treatment options for patients with prostate cancer rather than traditional treatment practices. In clinical trials, new treatment procedures and the results of these procedures are evaluated by experts over a period of several years before being approved by the FDA.
Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials are conducted to examine a new drug or combination of treatments and to observe its positive effects. The patient’s medical records and test results are reviewed in detail by doctors, scientists, and researchers prior to enrollment in a clinical study.
Prostate Cancer Clinical Trial Treatment Options
General treatment for prostate cancer includes hormone therapy, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and surgery. Clinical trial treatments may include screening procedures such as biopsies, MRI analysis, DBSI analysis, and PET scans. There are many clinical trials that perform different procedures for prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer drugs approved by clinical trials include:
- Erleada (apalutamide)
- Jevtana (cabazitaxel)
- Keytruda (pembrolizumab)
- Nubeqa (darolutamide)
- Provenge (sipuleucel-T)
- Xgeva (denosumab)
- Xofigo (radium 223 dichloride)
- Xtandi (enzalutamide)
- Zytiga (abiraterone)
What Causes Prostate Cancer?
Prostate cancer usually shows no signs or symptoms in the early stages. It is one of the most common types of cancer in men after skin cancer. The diagnosis is usually made as a result of urination problems, the most common symptom.
The prostate is largely made up of muscle fibers and glands. Its main function is to produce semen to deliver sperm. Prostate cancer is a malignant tumor that occurs in the outer part of the prostate gland and spreads to the inner parts of the prostate as it grows.
As individuals get older, the risk of getting prostate cancer increases. If a family member carries the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene, which increases the risk of breast cancer, or if there are individuals with breast cancer in the family, the risk of prostate cancer also increases. Obese men are also more likely to have advanced prostate cancer that is more difficult to treat.
Prostate Cancer Grades and Stages
If cancer is detected in the prostate biopsy, the cancerous tissue is examined by the pathologist. The most common grading system is via the Gleason score. The results provide important information about the growth rate and differentiation of the tumor from normal tissue.
Observation that the tumor does not differ excessively from normal tissues means that it will grow slowly, with little risk of spreading. A tumor that differs significantly from normal tissues will likely grow rapidly and can spread to other parts of the body.
Staging in prostate cancer is evaluated in 4 stages, as in other types of cancer. Criteria such as the size of the tumor, extent of the spread in or around the tissues of the prostate, whether the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes, and the metastasis status are evaluated in the staging of the disease.