The TP53 tumor suppressor gene is one of the transcription factors responsible for the production of the protein known as p53, which regulates the life cycle of the cell. The tp53 gene, which is a frequently studied gene in cancer research, has a serious role in preventing cancer formation, thanks to its cancer-suppressing feature.
The TP53 tumor suppressor gene is present in the DNA structure of vertebrate cells. The p53 protein, therefore the tp53 gene, can prevent mutations that may occur in DNA through radiation, UV rays and toxic chemicals. As seen in cancer research, the tp53 gene has undergone various mutations in most cancer types.
TP53 Tumor Suppressor Gene and Function
The TP53 tumor suppressor gene protects the DNA structure from possible damage and affects the life cycle of the cell accordingly. Also known as the genome guard, tp53 is of great importance in suppressing the tumor formation of cells and ending the damage that may occur before it spreads. The functions of the TP53 gene in the cell can be listed as follows.
- It can stop the cell with damaged DNA structure before it enters the S phase. In this way, the necessary time is provided for the repair of the damaged area.
- In cases where DNA damage cannot be repaired, it initiates cell death, that is, apoptosis, and prevents the damaged cell from damaging the surrounding area and multiplying.
- It has the ability to activate DNA repair proteins.
The effect of the tp53 gene, which is a very important structure for the health of the cell and the body, has become more noticeable during cancer research. tp53 gene mutations are found in a significant proportion of cancer types and at an underestimated rate.
TP53 Gene Mutation and Cancer
For example, somatic mutations in the tp53 gene have been observed in almost half of the squamous cell carcinoma structures associated with the head and neck region. As a result of hereditary mutation, Li-Fraumeni syndrome is encountered, which significantly increases the chances of cancer such as bone cancer, breast cancer, and soft tissue carcinoma.
TP53 Gene Mutation and Cancer Treatment
A drug has not yet been produced for the tp53 gene, which is one of the most studied areas for those working in the field of cancer. The fact that it is copied in different numbers in different species is one of the problems experienced in drug production.