Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Genomic Testing helps cancer patients determine which mutations they have inherited that will affect their prognosis.
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Genomic Testing expresses the genes displayed by a cancer tumor. Any of these genes may have been mutated. Mutated gene structures help doctors gain insight into tumor behavior and propensity to spread.
What is Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Genomic Test?
Genomic testing is used to detect changes in the DNA of cancer patients and tumors. Better targeted cancer treatment can be planned, including personalized treatments with the help of genomic tests.
Genetic testing is now an important part of diagnosing and staging patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Some chemotherapy drugs may be more or less effective than others against tumors with certain mutations. Molecular analysis of the tumor helps determine which treatments will benefit the patient the most.
Almost all of the genetic changes in cells are found only in cancer cells, not normal cells. This indicates that it is not possible to pass it on to your children. The most common genetic changes tested in lung cancer are the EGFR, KRAS, and ALK genes.
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Genetic Markers
Currently, genomic abnormalities that are clinically actionable with FDA-approved drugs include changes in EGFR, ALK, ROS1, MET, RET, NTRK1 / 2/3 and BRAF genes. Most of these mutations occur during a patient’s lifetime and only occur in cancer cells.
In general, EGFR mutations are more common in patients with no previous smoking history. Many of these EGFR mutations activate molecular pathways that support cancer cell survival, increased cell proliferation, and tumor cell motility.
Erlotinib, gefitinib, afatinib, osimertinib, and dacomitinib are FDA-approved inhibitors that slow cancer growth by counteracting EGFR mutations.
ALK fusions are seen in younger patients, nonsmokers or light smokers. When the ALK gene combines with another gene, EML4, it can trigger the development of lung cancer. ALK fusions are typically not found in patients with EGFR mutations.
ROS1 fusions are usually identified in young nonsmokers. ROS1 can combine with many other genes to create an oncogenic fusion that can lead to lung cancer.
MET changes are found in about 5% of lung cancer patients. These changes in MET lead to increased cell proliferation and cancer-causing invasion.
Similar to the ALK and ROS1 fusions in lung adenocarcinoma, RET fusions can initiate and sustain the tumor.
Fusions in NTRK1, NTRK2, and NTRK3 can send cellular signals to trigger unregulated cell growth in many different cancers. It has also been identified in different types of cancer, including lung adenocarcinoma.
BRAF mutations mediate tumor formation by activating cancer-forming molecular pathways. It is commonly associated with melanoma and thyroid cancer. It is also found in about 7% of patients with lung adenocarcinoma.