Massive Bio https://massivebio.com Best Oncology Advisory Services By Cancer Treatment Care Specialists & Tumor Board Experts in America Fri, 14 May 2021 13:11:33 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.5.5 https://massivebio.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/cropped-android-icon-192x192-32x32.png Massive Bio https://massivebio.com 32 32 Use of AI and Digital Tools in Oncology and Clinical Trials https://massivebio.com/ai-digital-tools-oncology-clinical-trials https://massivebio.com/ai-digital-tools-oncology-clinical-trials#respond Tue, 04 May 2021 12:07:44 +0000 https://massivebio.com/?p=23523 Massive Bio Co-Founder and Chief Medical Advisor Dr. Arturo Loaiza-Bonilla, MD hosted the Use of AI and Digital Tools in Oncology and Clinical Trials, a talk for Total Health Conferencing’s month-long event, Open Mic May. Open Mic May is a series of talks presented by leaders in oncology to share their initiatives and topics they …

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Massive Bio Co-Founder and Chief Medical Advisor Dr. Arturo Loaiza-Bonilla, MD hosted the Use of AI and Digital Tools in Oncology and Clinical Trials, a talk for Total Health Conferencing’s month-long event, Open Mic May.

Open Mic May is a series of talks presented by leaders in oncology to share their initiatives and topics they are passionate about. Other talks for Open Mic May include topics in oncology such as genomic testing, personalized therapy, clinical trials, and more.

Dr. Arturo Loaiza-Bonilla, MD reviewed the innovations of Artificial Intelligence (AI) platforms to provide cancer patients clinical trial matching and access to precision oncology. The Use of AI and Digital Tools in Oncology and Clinical Trials and the other talks from Open Mic May premiered on Total Health Conferencing’s YouTube channel. Arturo’s talk was live on Wednesday, May 12th at 3:00pm EST. You can watch the full video below.

When describing the need to treat each patient and cancer type differently, Arturo explained, "The only way for us to determine how to tailor treatments for the right patient is by developing algorithms or digital solutions with the use of data and strong analytics coming from Artificial Intelligence (AI)."

He continued, “We know cancer has a lot of patients around unfortunately, and they could benefit from getting access to these clinical trials. But sometimes they are not located at the right place for the right patient, or at the right time. Or they are done at a time or site that is repetitive, so we can use Artificial Intelligence to overcome those challenges.” New AI solutions for oncology clinical trials such as the SYNERGY AI Clinical Trial Matching System connects patients to clinical trials and pre-screens them to confirm eligibility, all while being done virtually without a need for travel. Digital tools such as this will increase cancer patients’ access to trials regardless of their location or ability to access information.

Visit Total Health Conferencing’s website to learn more about Open Mic May.

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Breast Cancer https://massivebio.com/breast-cancer https://massivebio.com/breast-cancer#respond Mon, 03 May 2021 22:28:22 +0000 https://massivebio.com/?p=23472 Breast cancer is a disease where malignant cells form in the tissue of the breast. It is the second most common cancer type for women with 12.8% of women being diagnosed throughout their life. Even though most people think of women when it comes to breast cancer, roughly 1% of patients are male. Over 268,000 …

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Breast cancer is a disease where malignant cells form in the tissue of the breast. It is the second most common cancer type for women with 12.8% of women being diagnosed throughout their life. Even though most people think of women when it comes to breast cancer, roughly 1% of patients are male. Over 268,000 new cases last year alone. By far, the most common screening method for breast cancer is a mammogram. For those who have a family history or at a high risk of breast cancer, MRIs are also used.

The most common types of breast cancer include:

  • Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)
  • Invasive ductal carcinoma
  • Metastatic breast cancer
  • Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC)
  • Triple negative
  • Invasive lobular cancer (ILC)
  • HER2-positive

Breast Cancer Symptoms

The symptoms of breast cancer depend on a variety of factors including the type of breast cancer and the stage it is in. However, there are some symptoms most patients experience like:

  • A lump or thickening in the breast that is different from the other tissue in the breast
  • Changes in the shape, appearance, or size of the breast
  • Redness or itching of the breast
  • Dimpling or changes to the breast skin
  • Changes like peeling, flaking, or scaling of the skin around the areola

Sometimes, there are other symptoms some patients may have, especially those with metastatic or advanced cases.

Breast Self Examination

What Causes Breast Cancer?

Doctors do not know the exact cause of breast cancer. Breast cancer occurs when changes are made to the DNA of the cells within the breast. This change in DNA, or mutation, can be inherited from your parents, or developed over the course of your lifetime.

Breast Cancer Risk Factors

The breast cancer cells typically begin growing in the milk-producing ducts. Family history does play a role in breast cancer through gene mutations. Other risk factors include:

  • Radiation exposure
  • Obesity
  • Never being pregnant
  • Women represent roughly 99% of the breast cancer population, so being female is also an inherent risk factor

Breast Cancer Prevention

There is no way to prevent hereditary breast cancer. It is recommended to get yearly screenings and perform self-examinations to ensure early detection if breast cancer does occur. You can also get genetic testing to understand your exact risk of it developing. Even without family history of breast cancer, these actions can ensure if cancer develops it is caught in early stages, when successful treatment is far more likely.

HER2 Positive Breast Cancer

HER2 positive breast cancer is confirmed when there are higher levels of the protein called HER2 in the tumor. This type of cancer is common in about 1 in 5 women diagnosed with breast cancer.

HER2 positive breast cancer cases have a higher likelihood of metastasis and recurrence, however the prognosis for each breast cancer is dependent on their unique cancer case. HER2 positive breast cancer tends to grow and spread faster than other breast cancers.

FGFR Breast Cancer

The receptors to which growth factors that support cell division bind are called growth factor receptors. Growth factors in the microenvironment outside of the cell binds to the growth factor receptor and enables the receptor to become active.

During normal cell functioning, growth factor receptors become active in certain situations and allow the cell to reproduce. However, with the accumulation of DNA damage or mutation, changes occur in the receptors. As a result of these changes, the receptor becomes constantly active and sends a continuous proliferation signal to the cell. In this case, cancerous cell formation occurs.

Breast cancer is a complex disease and some molecular factors regulate its progression. Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling is often erratic in many cancers, including breast cancer. Because FGFR signals are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of tumors, FGFR targeted agents reveal a potential therapeutic option for breast cancer patients.

Triple Negative Breast Cancer

A triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) diagnosis means that the 3 most common types of receptors, (estrogen, progesterone, and the HER-2/neu gene), that feed many breast cancers, are not present in the tumor. In other words, the breast cancer cells tested negative for epidermal growth factor receptor 2, estrogen receptors, and progesterone receptors.

In the past, breast cancer was examined in two groups, sensitive and insensitive to the estrogen hormone. Today, breast cancer is divided into 4 main types according to receptors, that is, its biological characteristics.

  • Luminal A (ER/PR positive, HER2 negative, Ki-67 low): Tumors sensitive to estrogen hormone (ER positive)
  • Luminal B (ER/PR positive, HER2 negative OR positive, Ki-67 high): Tumors that are sensitive to estrogen hormone and/or also carry HER2 receptors (HER2 positive)
  • HER2 positive: Tumors with HER2 receptor insensitive to estrogen hormone
  • Triple negative: Tumors that do not carry estrogen hormone and HER2 receptors.

Metastatic Breast Cancer

Metastasis is a characteristic of cancerous cells and is the separation of cells in a tumor from the tissue they are in and migrate to other tissues and organs through blood, lymph or direct neighborhood. When cancer metastasizes, it is called stage 4.

It is difficult to define signs and symptoms specific to metastasis in breast cancer. Symptoms and complaints caused by breast cancer metastases vary according to the organ where the cells spread.

  • Lung metastasis can be detected with complaints of shortness of breath (dyspnea) or abnormal lung findings during examination.
  • Liver metastasis may occur with jaundice, nausea, vomiting, and right upper quadrant abdominal pain.
  • Bone metastases often cause pain.

It is important to have regular check-ups in breast cancer patients who do not have metastatic disease, as these can help detect metastases early.

Clinical studies are ongoing for the Stage 4 breast cancer treatment. Some of these studies are focusing in specific biomarkers (e.g. PIK3CA, FGFR, BRCA)

Breast Cancer Treatment

Oncologists determine the appropriate method of treatment based on the stage, subtype, patient’s overall health, and genetic mutations of this type of cancer. The common treatment methods for cancer patients include:

  • Surgery, for early, localized cases
  • Radiation therapy, often used after surgery
  • Chemotherapy, used before and after surgery, or in advanced cases
  • Hormone therapy, alternative for women who can’t use chemotherapy
  • Targeted therapy, used if common breast cancer genetic mutations are identified
  • Immunotherapy, used in advanced cases or combined with chemotherapy

Breast Cancer Clinical Trials

There are approximately 958 breast cancer clinical trials that are currently recruiting patients in the United States right now. With such an extensive list, many of them could be beneficial for you. Our team of patient advocates, who are oncology nurses, and our artificial intelligence based clinical trial matching system will find the best option for you.

With just a few clicks, you can see your clinical trial matches now. Click here to use our advanced clinical trial match tool.

How Do We Help Breast Cancer Patients?

Massive Bio offers an independent cancer treatment analysis as well as free clinical trial matching for breast cancer patients. Our patient advocates work closely with patients to gather information on their current medical status, and then will provide a list of options from available cancer clinical trials close to your home.

We can also provide a comprehensive case analysis through our Virtual Tumor Board from cancer specialists. The Virtual Tumor Board (VTB) is comprised of highly specialized oncologists from nationally-recognized Cancer Centers of Excellence. In just 7-10 days after receiving your medical records, we can get you a treatment plan without having to travel far distances and use your valuable time.

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New Artificial Intelligence Based Myelofibrosis Clinical Trial Finder Mobile App https://massivebio.com/myelofibrosis-clinical-trial-finder-app https://massivebio.com/myelofibrosis-clinical-trial-finder-app#respond Mon, 26 Apr 2021 14:07:55 +0000 https://massivebio.com/?p=23230 The Myelofibrosis Clinical Trial Finder Mobile App gives myelofibrosis patients access to a matching tool designed to help them access new treatment options in the form of clinical trials that are in the process of being approved by the FDA. Clinical trials give patients early access to treatments so that they do not have to …

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The Myelofibrosis Clinical Trial Finder Mobile App gives myelofibrosis patients access to a matching tool designed to help them access new treatment options in the form of clinical trials that are in the process of being approved by the FDA. Clinical trials give patients early access to treatments so that they do not have to wait for years until the treatment is released to the public. The clinical trial finder app finds myelofibrosis patients clinical trials near their location, according to their stage of cancer, biomarker status, such as the presence of the JAK2 mutation, among many other data points. The Myelofibrosis Clinical Trial Finder Mobile App is available for free on the iOS App Store and Google Play.

What are Myelofibrosis Clinical Trials?

Myelofibrosis clinical trials test new and promising treatments to diagnose, prevent, or treat myelofibrosis. Myelofibrosis clinical trials can also be used to learn if a new treatment is more effective or has less harmful side effects than standard treatment. Patients who participate in clinical trials may make a difference in getting a drug approved for wider public use. That’s why Massive Bio helps patients find clinical trials that fit their unique myelofibrosis case, preferences, and more, so that those who are interested in clinical trials don’t have to figure it out on their own.

Myelofibrosis Clinical Trial Finder Mobile App

The Artificial Intelligence (AI) based engine matches your unique characteristics and cancer genomics to thousands of active clinical trials, to locate and notify you of your eligibility to enroll in real-time. This technology paired with our mobile app makes it easy to find your eligibility for myelofibrosis clinical trials, as well as the best trial sites closest to you. Clinical trials are available for enrollment all around the world. With over 30,000 clinical trials in the United States alone, you can find trials that you would be willing to travel to.

We Are Committed to Finding Treatment Options for Our Patients

Massive Bio offers a one-of-a-kind, personalized, hassle-free, and evidence-based service to cancer patients. No one should fight cancer alone. Our cancer care team will assist you with any logistics until you are enrolled into your clinical trial.

Download on the App Store ®Get it on Google Play

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Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms in Woman https://massivebio.com/pancreatic-cancer-symptoms-in-woman https://massivebio.com/pancreatic-cancer-symptoms-in-woman#respond Mon, 26 Apr 2021 09:59:16 +0000 https://massivebio.com/?p=23313 Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms in Woman: Though it is less common in women, pancreatic cancer symptoms can manifest itself in similar ways in both genders.  The pancreas is an organ that produces the hormones necessary for both the production of enzymes required in the digestive system and the regulation of blood sugar. Pancreatic cancer symptoms can …

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Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms in Woman: Though it is less common in women, pancreatic cancer symptoms can manifest itself in similar ways in both genders.  The pancreas is an organ that produces the hormones necessary for both the production of enzymes required in the digestive system and the regulation of blood sugar.

Pancreatic cancer symptoms can manifest itself in a woman as the cells that make up the pancreatic organ lose their normal functions. The use of harmful habits damage this organ, which performs vital tasks.

What are the Symptoms of Pancreatic Cancer in Women?

It is generally known that bad habits are a risk factor. Apart from this, the symptoms of pancreatic cancer may occur within women as a result of genetic factors and some mutation of diseases. A physical examination is performed by a doctor by questioning your disease, genetic structure or habits. If pancreatic cancer is in its initial stage, it can grow without any symptoms. However, as the stages progress, the most common pancreatic cancer symptoms in women include:

  • Weight loss
  • Abdominal Pain
  • Jaundice
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea and Vomiting
  • Weakness and Fatigue
  • Diarrhea
  • Digestive Difficulty
  • Back pain
  • Sudden Diabetes

One of the most common symptoms that can occur in the earliest stages is jaundice. It prevents the passage of substances produced by the liver into the duodenum by obstruction of the biliary tract caused by pancreatic cancer. Meanwhile, it can show itself with pain.

What are Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors?

Today, the cause of the disease is not known exactly, however, there are many factors that increase the risk. Among these reasons, smoking, obesity, and diabetes are less common in women than in men. There are many other factors that increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. These include:

  • Diabetes Disease
  • Smoking
  • Obesity
  • Genetic Pancreatic Cancer
  • Aging
  • Diabetes

With the progression of pancreatic cancer, the following complications may also occur:

  • Weight loss can occur with pancreatic cancer. Weight loss may be due to the drugs taken during pancreatic cancer treatment or when the tumor creates pressure. Nausea or difficulty to eat also causes weight loss.
  • Pressure can put pain on your abdomen as a tumor is growing within the pancreas, and this pain may be exacerbated in the future.
  • Intestinal obstruction when pancreatic cancer that grows in the first part of the duodenum puts pressure on it, preventing the intake of food from passing into the intestines.

If you have a genetic history of pancreatic cancer in your family, you should contact a genetic counselor. Your counselor can direct you to physical tests or understand other cancer risks.

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Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms https://massivebio.com/pancreatic-cancer-symptoms https://massivebio.com/pancreatic-cancer-symptoms#respond Wed, 21 Apr 2021 12:06:07 +0000 https://massivebio.com/?p=23206 Pancreatic cancer symptoms are often absent in early stages, so many cases are diagnosed when the cancer has already grown and spread. This is one of the reasons that pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Early detection of cancer improves the likelihood of successful treatment, especially when …

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Pancreatic cancer symptoms are often absent in early stages, so many cases are diagnosed when the cancer has already grown and spread. This is one of the reasons that pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death in the United States.

Early detection of cancer improves the likelihood of successful treatment, especially when the cancer is aggressive, and spreads as quickly as pancreatic cancer is known to. There are two types of pancreatic cancer, exocrine tumors, which make up 93 percent of pancreatic tumors, and neuroendocrine tumors, which make up 7 percent of pancreatic cancers.

The main difference in these types of pancreatic cancer is that neuroendocrine tumors are known to be less aggressive and grow slowly. Each year, there are more than 60,000 cases of pancreatic cancer diagnosed in the United States, so awareness of the symptoms and warning signs are important.

Symptoms of Pancreatic Cancer

The most common symptom of pancreatic cancer is jaundice, the yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes. Bilirubin, a yellow and brown substance produced in the liver builds up when the bile duct becomes blocked. Normally, bile is released from the liver which contains the bilirubin through the bile duct.

Cancer of the pancreas can begin in the three places, the head, body, or tail. If it starts in the head of the pancreas, it is closest to the bile duct and may press on the duct, causing jaundice throughout the body quickly. If the cancer begins in the body or tail, jaundice is usually not seen until the cancer has spread to the tissues surrounding the pancreas. The liver is often the first place the cancer spreads beyond the pancreas. Despite jaundice being the most common first symptom pancreatic cancer patients experience, jaundice more often occurs in hepatitis, gallstones, or other liver and bile duct diseases.

Other symptoms of pancreatic cancer include:

  • Dark colored urine
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite and weight loss
  • Pain of the back or upper abdomen
  • Light colored or greasy stool
  • Nausea and vomiting

Diagnosing Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic cancer can be difficult to diagnose due to symptoms not occurring until later stages and when they do occur, the symptoms are commonly seen in other illnesses unrelated to pancreatic cancer. When pancreatic cancer is suspected, imaging tests will be used to confirm the diagnosis including:

  • MRI
  • CT scan
  • PET scan
  • Endoscopic ultrasound

It is also difficult to diagnosis pancreatic cancer in the early stages because there are no pancreatic cancer specific screening tests used for those at risk. However, you should be aware of the risk factors that are associated with this illness. Some common risk factors for pancreatic cancer include smoking, obesity, diabetes, pancreatitis, and family history of pancreatic cancer. If you are at risk of developing cancer in the pancreas, you should talk to your doctor about yearly checkups and what early signs to be aware of.

Sources:

https://www.cancer.gov/types/pancreatic/patient/pancreatic-treatment-pdq

https://www.cancer.org/cancer/pancreatic-cancer/detection-diagnosis-staging/signs-and-symptoms.html

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What is The First Sign of Stomach Cancer? https://massivebio.com/what-is-the-first-sign-of-stomach-cancer https://massivebio.com/what-is-the-first-sign-of-stomach-cancer#respond Wed, 21 Apr 2021 10:55:46 +0000 https://massivebio.com/?p=23199 Recognizing the first sign of stomach cancer is important because many cases are often undiagnosed until in advanced stages. Stomach (gastric) cancer occurs when malignant cancer cells begin in the lining of the stomach. Over 25,000 cases are diagnosed in the United States each year. However, cancer of the stomach is more common in other …

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Recognizing the first sign of stomach cancer is important because many cases are often undiagnosed until in advanced stages. Stomach (gastric) cancer occurs when malignant cancer cells begin in the lining of the stomach. Over 25,000 cases are diagnosed in the United States each year. However, cancer of the stomach is more common in other countries and is the fourth most common cancer type worldwide with roughly 1 million cases per year. The large disparity in cases can be attributed to the diets and water quality of different countries. For example, Asia has the highest incidence rate due to infections from Helicobacter pylori, a type of bacteria that comes from a lack of clean water and good sewage systems. Higher case rates are also believed to stem from increased consumption of smoked and salted foods.

Due to the lower incidence in the United States, stomach cancer is not routinely screened for like other cancer types. This has led to many cases of gastric cancer developing undetected for several years and not being diagnosed until the tumor has grown and spread to tissues surrounding the stomach. Poor prognosis can stem from a delayed diagnosis because earlier detection increases the likelihood of successful treatment. Therefore, once symptoms or signs are experienced, it is important to see your doctor right away.

Signs of Stomach Cancer

Similar to other cancer types, gastric cancer symptoms and signs can vary for each patient. Most signs and symptoms are not experienced in early stages, but some patients may experience a combination of the following:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Abdominal pain and discomfort
  • Nausea
  • Feeling full when eating small amounts
  • Heartburn
  • Indigestion

Symptoms are not typically experienced until the tumor has grown and spread. These symptoms will often include the following:

  • Blood in stool or vomit
  • Persistent fatigue from anemia
  • Unexpected weight loss
  • Difficulty swallowing

Once the cancer grows and spreads beyond the stomach, other symptoms and complications can begin occurring. Specifically, If the cancer has spread to the liver, jaundice, which is the yellowing of the skin and eyes often occurs.

Diagnosing Stomach Cancer

The type of stomach cancer can also influence how early symptoms are experienced for patients. Most gastric cancers are adenocarcinomas and divided into two groups. Intestinal stomach cancer has a slightly better prognosis and gene changes that make patients eligible for targeted therapies. Diffuse stomach cancer is less common and grows more quickly than intestinal stomach cancer. These types of tumors are more likely to have early-stage symptoms but are more difficult to treat.

For those suspected to have stomach cancer or are experiencing the relevant symptoms, testing will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Upper Endoscopy is the most used test for gastric cancer. The doctor puts a thin tube with a camera down your throat to see the inner lining of the stomach, esophagus, and small intestine. If abnormal areas are seen, a sample is collected and sent to a lab for a biopsy. Other testing methods that can be used for the diagnosing and staging of stomach cancer include:

  • X-rays
  • CT scan
  • PET scan
  • Endoscopic Ultrasound
  • MRI

Sources:

https://www.cancer.org/cancer/stomach-cancer/detection-diagnosis-staging/signs-symptoms.html

https://www.roswellpark.org/cancertalk/202011/does-where-you-live-impact-your-stomach-cancer-risk

https://www.cancer.gov/types/stomach/patient/stomach-treatment-pdq#_1

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What is HER2 Positive Breast Cancer Prognosis https://massivebio.com/what-is-her2-positive-breast-cancer-prognosis https://massivebio.com/what-is-her2-positive-breast-cancer-prognosis#respond Wed, 21 Apr 2021 10:30:09 +0000 https://massivebio.com/?p=23190 HER2 positive breast cancer is confirmed when there are higher levels of the protein called HER2 in the tumor. This type of cancer is common in about 1 in 5 women diagnosed with breast cancer. So, what is a HER2 positive breast cancer prognosis? HER2 positive breast cancer cases have a higher likelihood of metastasis …

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HER2 positive breast cancer is confirmed when there are higher levels of the protein called HER2 in the tumor. This type of cancer is common in about 1 in 5 women diagnosed with breast cancer. So, what is a HER2 positive breast cancer prognosis? HER2 positive breast cancer cases have a higher likelihood of metastasis and recurrence, however the prognosis for each breast cancer is dependent on their unique cancer case. HER2 positive breast cancer tends to grow and spread faster than other breast cancers.

HER2 Positive Breast Cancer Prognosis

A breast cancer prognosis is determined depending on the stage of the cancer and how far it has spread. Thus, prognosis for breast cancer patients varies widely patient to patient.

HER2 Positive Breast Cancer Treatment

HER2 positive breast cancer is often treated with drugs that specifically target the HER2 protein. There are a few different types of drugs that target the HER2 protein, which include:

  • Monoclonal antibodies: man-made antibodies that are design to attach to a specific target, such as the HER2 protein on cancer cells, stopping the cancerous cells from growing.
    • Trastuzumab
    • Pertuzumab
    • Margetuximab
  • Antibody-drug conjugates: a type of monoclonal antibody linked to a chemotherapy drug, which causes the drug to bring the chemotherapy directly to the HER2 proteins.
    • Ado-trastuzumab emtansine
    • Fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan
  • Kinase inhibitors: HER2 is a type of protein called a kinase, which is a protein that relays signals telling cancer cells to grow. Kinase inhibitors block kinases, stopping them from doing their job.
    • Lapatinib
    • Neratinib
    • Tucatinib

Patients with HER2 positive breast cancer should consult their oncologist and care team about which treatment option might be best for them. Although targeted therapies are generally more effective, there are different options which might be best depending on each patient’s unique case.

Sources:

Breast Cancer HER2 Status | HER2 Positive Breast Cancer

Targeted Drug Therapy for Breast Cancer

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Stomach Cancer Symptoms in Men https://massivebio.com/stomach-cancer-symptoms-in-men https://massivebio.com/stomach-cancer-symptoms-in-men#respond Mon, 19 Apr 2021 08:50:32 +0000 https://massivebio.com/?p=23284 Stomach Cancer Symptoms can manifest itself with various symptoms in the male body. Stomach cancer is a disease that usually progresses insidiously and shows its symptoms in later periods. Stomach Cancer Symptoms can occur within men due to reasons such as usage habits and irregular diet since childhood. One of its features is that it …

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Stomach Cancer Symptoms can manifest itself with various symptoms in the male body. Stomach cancer is a disease that usually progresses insidiously and shows its symptoms in later periods.

Stomach Cancer Symptoms can occur within men due to reasons such as usage habits and irregular diet since childhood. One of its features is that it can start in any part of the stomach and spread to the whole body.

What are the Symptoms of Stomach Cancer in Men?

Stomach cancer may not show any symptoms in its early stages. However, that does not mean that it will not emerge in the future. First of all, stomach cancer symptoms show some common symptoms in men and women. Indigestion and bloating are among the first noticeable symptoms. Reluctance to eat solid foods can also be another symptom of stomach cancer. Symptoms exhibited in advanced stages include:

  • Abdominal Pain
  • Nausea and Vomiting
  • Post-Meal Bloating
  • Weight loss

It is very important for men to catch stomach cancer symptoms at an early stage. When complaints begin with disorders in the digestive system, pain and indigestion in the stomach area, you should contact your specialist doctor immediately.

Why Does Stomach Cancer Occur?

Stomach cancer can occur for many reasons. It can also occur in any part of the organs in the digestive system and spread throughout the body. The emerging cancer cells adversely affect the working order of other organs and trigger them as a risk factor in their behavior. The behaviors that cause stomach cancer can be listed as follows

  • Infections are the unclean environment you are in or the contamination of bacteria that affect certain stomach cancer.
  • Diet is the most important and underestimated cause of stomach cancer. Meat cooked over a hot fire, excessive salt consumption, pickled vegetables, processed foods or consumption of foods known as harmful, triggers stomach cancer.  Therefore, attention should be paid to a healthy and regular diet.
  • Genetically, as in all cancers, there may be an inherited stomach cancer factor from the family.
  • Smoking and Alcohol are a preventable cause of stomach cancer. When you remove bad habits, you can live a healthier life. Especially, cigarettes consumed with alcohol can increase the possibility of causing stomach cancer. By avoiding such harmful habits, you can lower the risk of stomach cancer.

Early diagnosis of stomach cancer is important for treatment. For this reason, when you experience stomach problems, you should observe the many causes and symptoms and contact your specialist doctor as soon as possible.

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Triple Negative Breast Cancer https://massivebio.com/triple-negative-breast-cancer https://massivebio.com/triple-negative-breast-cancer#respond Sun, 18 Apr 2021 21:42:35 +0000 https://massivebio.com/?p=23141 Triple Negative Breast Cancer is the most common cancer in women with different characteristics according to morphological, clinical, hormone receptor level, and response to treatment. The most distinctive feature that distinguishes triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) from other breast cancers is that the receptors on the cancer cell surfaces are negative. In other words, it …

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Triple Negative Breast Cancer is the most common cancer in women with different characteristics according to morphological, clinical, hormone receptor level, and response to treatment.

The most distinctive feature that distinguishes triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) from other breast cancers is that the receptors on the cancer cell surfaces are negative. In other words, it is the absence of these three receptors, which are referred to as estrogen hormone receptor (ER), progesterone hormone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2).

Triple Negative Breast Cancer Symptoms

The most common sign is a painless, hard mass in the breast. However, in some cases of TNBC, there are no symptoms at all. Other less common symptoms can include:

  • Changes in the skin of the breast
  • Lumps or masses felt in the armpit
  • Changes in the nipple
  • Breast pain, warmth, irritation, itchiness or hardness
  • Change in the size or shape of one or both breasts

Triple Negative Breast Cancer Causes

Some breast cancer cells can also be driven by hormones called estrogen and progesterone.  The breast cancer cells may have receptors on their surfaces that carry these hormones in the body.   When the tumor is tested by taking a sample by biopsy or surgery, the cells are checked to see if the breast cancer cells may have one, both, or none of these receptors:

  • Estrogen receptor (ER) positive: tumor has estrogen receptors
  • Progesterone receptor (PR) positive: tumor has progesterone receptors
  • Hormone receptor (HR) positive: tumor has one or both estrogen or progesterone
  • Hormone receptor (HR) negative: tumor does not have estrogen or progesterone receptors

Breast cancer is also closely related to environmental factors. Lifestyle, dietary habits, and genetic factors can increase the risk of developing breast cancer. Today, excessive weight gain or obesity, because of unbalanced nutrition, increases the risk of breast cancer. The risk of breast cancer also increases in women who do not have children or have children at a late age. In addition, gene mutations, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2, can be identified and help determine hereditary risk factors.

TNBC Risk Factors

Obesity and increased body mass index increase the risk of triple negative breast cancer. Among the reasons for this situation is a sedentary lifestyle along with an unhealthy diet. As with other types of cancer, individuals with mutated genes, inherited from parents or developed over a lifetime, have a higher risk of developing triple negative breast cancer.

According to some studies, older age also affects the risk of developing triple negative breast cancer. Pre-menopausal triple-negative breast cancer risk is higher than post-menopause. Additionally, according to other data, TNBC is more common in African American women. Pregnancy history in women can increase or decrease the risk of triple-negative breast cancer. The risk of this type of cancer is higher in women who have children compared to those who do not.

  • Triple negative breast cancer occurs most often in young women
  • African-American women are at greater risk
  • Having a family history of breast cancer increases your risk
  • A history of multiple breast biopsies or breast biopsy showing atypical cells
  • Being BRCA1 or BRCA2 positive.
  • Being obese
  • Getting pregnant for the first time after age 30
  • Getting cancer in a breast

Triple Negative Breast Cancer Molecular Subtyping

Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease. Much smaller tumors can be seen to metastasize through an aggressive, hematogenous way. Clinical treatment and prognosis varies greatly between patients. Definition of breast cancer molecular subtypes:

  • Luminal A (ER/PR+, HER2)
  • Luminal B (ER/PR+, HER2− or ERBBD2-) – (HER2+ B2 “ER/PR+, HER2 overexpression”)
  • HER2 overexpression (ER−, PR−, HER2 overexpression)
  • Basal-like TNBC (ER−, PR−, HER2−)

Triple Negative Breast Cancer Treatment

Triple negative breast cancer has fewer treatment options than other types of breast cancer. This is because the cancer cells do not have the estrogen or progesterone receptors, hormone therapy, or enough HER2 protein for drugs targeting those receptors to work. The main treatment of advanced stage TNBC today is chemotherapy.

In recent years, it has become increasingly clear how cancer cells escape from the immune system. As a result, targeted drugs have been developed that prevent and kill cancer cells from the immune system called “immunotherapy”. The most promising breast cancer type for immunotherapy is TNBC which is defined as “multi-personality”. The most recent developments are taking place in drugs that act on the immune system. Studies of certain drugs which have already been approved for malignant melanoma, head and neck, and lung cancers, continue in TNBC patients.

Can You Be Cured From Triple Negative Breast Cancer?

If the cancer has not spread to different areas of the body, surgery is an option for treatment in the early stages. In order to shrink a large tumor, the patient can be treated with chemotherapy until they are eligible for surgery. Treatment success for patients with triple negative breast cancer will vary for each patient because each cancer case is different. Thus, there is no known absolute cure for triple negative breast cancer.

Triple Negative Breast Cancer Clinical Trials

Chemotherapy is the most effective treatment method for TNBC patients. However, as in all types of cancer, clinical studies are ongoing evaluating all breast cancers, including triple negative breast cancer. When some recent clinical findings were examined, chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy was shown to help increase effectiveness.

There are currently drugs that are approved for malignant melanoma, head and neck, and lung cancers that are being studied in TNBC patients. Patients in clinical trials are monitored very carefully during and after treatment. If the treatment that is being studied successfully passes all stages of the clinical trial and obtains FDA approval, it becomes an approach that can be given to many patients.

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Stomach Cancer Treatment https://massivebio.com/stomach-cancer-treatment https://massivebio.com/stomach-cancer-treatment#respond Thu, 15 Apr 2021 09:12:03 +0000 https://massivebio.com/?p=23302 For the treatment of stomach cancer, first, a detailed diagnosis must be made. The content and form of the treatment to be applied varies according to the type of cancer that occurs in the stomach. Stomach cancer treatment is usually done by many different medical branches working together. The main purpose of the treatment is …

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For the treatment of stomach cancer, first, a detailed diagnosis must be made. The content and form of the treatment to be applied varies according to the type of cancer that occurs in the stomach.

Stomach cancer treatment is usually done by many different medical branches working together. The main purpose of the treatment is to remove the cancerous part in the stomach area. But nowadays, alternative treatment methods are also being investigated.

How Is Stomach Cancer Treated?

Stomach cancer is a disease caused by the development of malignant tumors in the gastric mucosa. Successful results can be obtained when diagnosed early in gastric cancer, which is one of the most common types of cancer. The first stage of stomach cancer is diagnosis of the disease. As a result of detailed tests and analyzes, it is determined in which region the cancer occurs and at what stage it is. The method to be applied for treatment is determined as a result of these analyzes.

Today, the most common treatment method is based on surgical removal of the cancerous area. In this method, called gastrectomy, the tumor area in the stomach and other tissues, that it has spread, are removed. Thus, the cancerous tissue, in the stomach of the patient, is removed from the body. In some cases, drug therapy can be applied before the surgical operation.

Today, apart from these two treatments, alternative gastric cancer research is being conducted in the clinical setting. Studies carried out to treat the cancerous area are continuing rapidly.

What are the Symptoms of Stomach Cancer?

Stomach cancer sometimes does not show symptoms in its early stages. In such cases, symptoms are observed only in the later stages of the disease. Stomach cancer symptoms are often related to digestion. The most common symptoms in stomach cancer are:

  • Indigestion and bloating in the stomach
  • Early feeling of fullness when eating
  • Increased stomach acid and belching
  • Sudden loss of appetite
  • Sudden weight loss
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Bleeding in the stomach
  • Bloody stools and bloody vomiting

Stomach Cancer Causes

There are many different causes that can cause stomach cancer. However, since the stomach is a digestive organ, these reasons are usually related to the foods you consume. Factors that can cause stomach cancer are as follows:

  • High carbohydrate foods
  • Salty or bitter foods
  • Dried, shocked or smoked foods
  • Smoking and alcohol
  • Aging
  • Family history of cancer
  • Vitamin E and C deficiency

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